Scientists demonstrate urine’s viability as an energy source

Scientists have published what is claimed to be the world’s first research paper on work that tested the viability of urine as a fuel for microbial fuel cells (MFCs).

Dr Ioannis Ieropoulos, Prof John Greenman and Prof Chris Melhuish from Bristol Robotics Lab published ’Urine utilisation by microbial fuel cells; energy fuel for the future’ in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.

MFCs consist of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion selective membrane. Commonly, bacteria are in the anode side and chemicals or oxygen are in the cathode side, which complete the reactions to generate power.

According to a statement, the use of urine as a biomass that can be converted to power via MFCs has been neglected by scientists, despite the fact that urine is an abundant waste product. Each human produces approximately 2.5 litres of urine a day, amounting to around 6.4 trillion litres globally each year. 

Dr Ieropoulos said: ‘Urine is chemically rich in substances favourable to the MFCs. Our research found that the output of electricity was consistent and measurable depending on the volume of urine and the timing of the doses.

‘At the moment the output from one MFC is small. Through this study and the related work carried out by our group over the years, we were able to show that by miniaturisation and multiplication of the number of MFCs into a stack and regulating the flow of urine, it may be possible to look at scales of use that have the potential to produce useful levels of power, for example, in a domestic or small village setting.

‘A stack consists of a number of MFCs, each just a few millilitres of volume, connected together so that the stream of urine runs through the MFCs and produces power as the microbes inside the MFCs get to work on this abundant fuel, which is rich in (among other things) carbohydrates, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and other organic compounds that collectively make it very good for the microbial fuel cells.’

As well as urine production from humans, farm animals worldwide produce around two to three times as much urine as humans, adding up to approximately 38 billion litres a day. 

The scientists suggest that by scaling up MFCs into stacks, further research might bring the levels of electricity production closer to those currently produced by biofuels.

Urine produced by farm animals can have a significant knock-on effect on the environment. The advantage of an MFC system that uses urine — whether human or animal — is that the process within the MFCs effectively  ’cleans’ the urine so that it could safely be discharged into the environment, removing the need for conventional treatment by wastewater companies.

‘While we recognise the need for a great deal more research in this area, we are very excited by the potential of this work,’ said Dr Ieropoulos.