Pioneering work at the
Based on a new advanced electrochemical technique, unknown bacteria and the antibiotics to which the bacteria are most susceptible can be identified. The method can provide test results in less than 30 minutes from a clinical isolate, which is much less than current technology that generates results somewhere between four hours and 72 hours.
As a result, patients can be placed on more appropriate and effective antibiotics much more quickly. In addition, hospitals can manage contagious disease and secondary infections with greater knowledge and improved efficiency.
Most established, commercially available methods rely on the observation of growth over a longer period of time (four hours to several days). These existing methods compare the extent of growth for microorganisms cultivated in the absence and the presence of antibiotic.
Mikkelsen’s and Ertl’s new technology is based on a direct measurement of cellular activity and eliminates the need for long periods of bacterial growth.
“Speeding up the process to identify and determine the most effective antibiotics to be used will have a significant positive impact on the patient and on the healthcare system,” said Jeff Hendrikse of RapidLabs (Rapid Laboratory Microsystems), the company that will commercialize the intellectual property originating at UW.
Six years ago, Mikkelsen and Ertl were performing different experiments in their labs. Although the experiments involved micro-organisms (bacteria and yeasts) and electrochemical measurement techniques, both researchers were unprepared for what they discovered.
They learned it’s possible to measure the viability (life and death) of a bacterial culture by making electrochemical recordings of respiration, just as a doctor measures a patient’s lung capacity. Further, by killing the bacteria with antibiotics, they found that respiration measurements were much faster than standard methods for determining drug effectiveness.
The presence of an effective antibiotic causes a decrease in the respiration of the bacteria, while the presence of an antibiotic to which the bacteria is resistant does not cause any change in the bacteria’s respiration. The results of this antibiotic susceptibility test indicate which antibiotics a physician should use to fight the patient’s infection or disease.
Later, it was shown that the new measurement technique could also be used to identify bacteria. Respiration measurements made after exposure of the bacteria to various chemicals (such as sugars and amino acids) yield a unique pattern of responses for each bacterial species. With a database of known bacterial respiration measurements, unknown bacteria can easily be identified, Mikkelsen said.
Antibiotic susceptibility and microbial identification tests are routine procedures used in outpatient and hospital laboratories to determine which antibiotic is most effective against a disease-causing organism. The use of these tests has been steadily increasing due to the introduction of new drugs as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The test results provide doctors with valuable information when prescribing drugs to patients.
Doctors often begin treatment by prescribing expensive wide-spectrum antibiotics because susceptibility tests currently require at least two to three days. Once the results are available, the prescription is often changed. Getting these test results sooner not only provides a cost savings to the healthcare system by getting the correct drug faster but can also improve patient outcomes significantly and can reduce mortality.
Mikkelsen said she created RapidLabs to ensure the discovery would be successfully delivered to healthcare institutions around the world.
RapidLabs, which was incorporated in 2002, has raised equity financing and is proceeding on the development of its first product.