Partners: University of Southampton Medical School; Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust (Southampton General Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics) and Smith and Nephew
Stem cells, with their ability to transform into any specialised cell, represent an important potential for medicine. They are at the focus of the emerging field known as regenerative medicine, in which damaged tissues are repaired by the body itself rather than by being patched with grafts of donated or transplanted tissues, or with synthetic materials designed to approach the properties of biological tissue.
It’s a method which is still fraught with difficulties, however, and one of these is obtaining the stem cells in the right condition to maxmise their effectiveness. For example, there is growing evidence that stem cells contained within bone marrow are particularly effective at repairing damaged skeletal tissue, as they are capable of transforming into bone and cartilage tissues. But the samples of bone marrow from which the stem cells are derived — known as aspirate — also contain a large proportion of blood, and the stem cells are most effective when administered in a concentrated or enriched form. The difficulty of obtaining stem cells in this form has held back the development of these techniques, despite their theoretical promise.
Medical equipment manufacturer Smith & Nephew has set out to tackle this problem in collaboration with the University of Southampton and the Southampton University Hospital NHS Trust, developing a small, simple, single-shot device to concentrate bone marrow samples for regenerative surgery. The collaboration with the hospital was vital, explained orthopaedic registrar and research fellow James Smith, who was involved with the project, because it allowed the team to be certain that they developed a device which would provide the correct material under the right conditions — the sterile field of an operating theatre.
‘Stem cells can turn into any sort of cell, but bone marrow stem cells are more likely to turn into skeletal tissue,’ Smith said. ‘Working on this kind of problem is the raison d’etre of the Bone and Joint Group at the hospital.’
With the field of regenerative medicine in its infancy, there is relatively little equipment available to enrich stem cell samples. The concentrator devices on the market at the moment are large, bulky machines that work on the same principle as a centrifuge, but their size means that they can’t be used in the operating theatre.
‘That’s a problem for this type of therapy,’ Smith explained. ‘Ideally, you want to remove a sample of bone marrow aspirate, enrich the stem cells, and reimplant them into the patient as part of the same operation, under the same anaesthetic. Some of the people who would benefit from this kind of therapy are elderly, and you want to reduce the risk as much as possible. With these large machines, you have to take the sample outside the sterile area of the theatre and away from the surgeon’s viewpoint to process it; that can take some time.’
Moreover, these machines are expensive — around £10,000 for the device itself, plus extra for consumables for each separate enrichment. ‘It can become very costly.’
The ideal answer would be a compact device which carried out the enrichment quickly, within the operating theatre. ‘In crude terms, what we want is something small, cheap and quick,’ Smith said. ‘And it’s a bonus if it’s disposable as well, so there’s no risk of sample contamination or patient mix-up.’
Smith & Nephew’s team, led by project manager Stephen Curran, developed a device which works using a technology called acoustic wave filtration. The device contains a membrane with a closely-controlled porosity, which is vibrated with a frequency in the acoustic region. The combination of pore size and vibration frequency, combined with reduced pressure on the opposite side of the membrane to the aspirate injection chamber, allows all of the cells in the sample apart from the stem cells to pass through the membrane, retaining the stem cells on the membrane itself. ‘We’re still in the prototype phase at the moment, but we’d expect the production model to produce an enriched sample in about 15 minutes,’ Smith said.
Gait trainer: portable gait monitoring system for rehabilitation
London Knee Clinic; Bath Institute of Medical Engineering; European Technology for Business
Monitoring gait is the best way to assess patients after joint surgery or to help elderly people avoid injuring themselves in falls, but the large and expensive equipment needed to do it tends to be confined to specialist laboratories. This project developed a system with four strap-on sensor modules containing accelerometers and gyroscopes, connected to a laptop computer which analyses the data. This allows GPs and and clinics to use gait analysis easily and cheaply.
Temporal Pixel Multiplexing: a new method for producing medical images
Oxford University, Nottingham University
TPM is a method for embedding slow-motion moving images into high resolution still pictures, using a single camera. This uses a chip made using conventional CMOS manufacturing techniques, and embeds movie data in the parts of the image which would normally be blurred, with no need for complex optics or large bandwidth.