HP has published research that could lead to the creation of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) up to eight times denser than those currently produced. HP claimed the FPGAs would use less energy for a given computation –
Moreover, such chips – which would use less energy for a given computation – could be built using the same sized transistors as those used in today’s FPGA design. According to HP, this means they could be built in current fabrication facilities with only minor modifications.
FPGAs are integrated circuits with programmable logic components and interconnects that can be adapted by end-users for specific applications. They are used in a wide range of industries, including communications, automotive and consumer electronics.
The technology calls for a nanoscale crossbar switch structure to be layered on top of conventional CMOS (complementary metal oxide silicon), using an architecture HP Labs researchers have named “field programmable nanowire interconnect (FPNI)”, a variation on the well-established FPGA technology.
The research was conducted using classic modelling and simulation techniques, but Williams said HP is working on producing an actual chip using the approach, and could have a laboratory prototype completed within the year.
‘Excessive heating and defective device operation arise at the nanoscale. What we’ve been able to do is combine conventional CMOS technology with nanoscale switching devices in a hybrid circuit to increase effective transistor density, reduce power dissipation, and dramatically improve tolerance to defective devices,’ said Williams, an HP Senior Fellow and director, Quantum Science Research, HP Labs.
The work uses a conceptual breakthrough for connecting a crossbar to CMOS by Dmitri Strukov and Konstantin Likharev of
In the FPNI approach, all logic operations are performed in the CMOS, whereas most of the signal routing in the circuit is handled by a crossbar that sits above the transistor layer. Since conventional FPGAs use 80 to 90 percent of their CMOS for signal routing, the FPNI circuit is much more efficient; the density of transistors actually used for performing logic is much higher and the amount of electrical power required for signal routing is decreased.
The researchers presented a “conservative” chip model using 15-nanometer-wide crossbar wires combined with 45nm half-pitch CMOS, which they said they believe could be technologically viable by 2010. That would be equivalent to leaping ahead three generations on the International Technology Roadmap for Silicon without having to shrink the transistors, they said.
‘The expense of fabricating chips is increasing dramatically with the demands of increasing manufacturing tolerances,’ said Snider, senior architect, Quantum Science Research, HP Labs. ‘We believe this approach could increase the usable device density of FPGAs by a factor of eight, using tolerances that are no greater than those required of today’s devices.’
Snider and Williams also used a model based on 4.5-nm-wide crossbar wires, which they said could be ready by 2020. The 4.5nm crossbar architecture combined with 45nm CMOS would yield a hybrid FPGA about four percent the size of a 45nm CMOS-only FPGA. In this case, the clock speed will likely decrease, but so will energy per computation.
Because of the tiny sizes of the nanowires and switches in the crossbars, the researchers said they expected defect rates to be relatively high. However, with the crossbar interconnect it is possible to route around defects, the researchers said. Their simulations showed that an FPNI chip with 20 percent of the nanowires broken in random locations still had an effective production yield of 75 percent and did not present significant performance compromises, which should make it economically feasible to produce.