Researchers at Washington State University Spokane have developed a new way to detect when drivers are becoming drowsy.
Their patented technology is based on steering wheel movements, which are more variable in tired drivers, and is claimed to offer an affordable and more reliable alternative to currently available video-based driver drowsiness detection systems.
‘Video-based systems that use cameras to detect when a car is drifting out of its lane are cumbersome and expensive,’ said Hans Van Dongen, research professor at the WSU Sleep and Performance Research Center. ‘They don’t work well on snow-covered or curvy roads, in darkness or when lane markers are faded or missing.
‘Our invention provides an inexpensive and user-friendly technology that overcomes these limitations and can help catch fatigue earlier, well before accidents are likely to happen,’ said Van Dongen, who developed the technology with postdoctoral research fellow Pia Forsman.
To achieve their results, the researchers analysed data from two laboratory experiments conducted at WSU Spokane.
Twenty-nine participants were on a simulated 10-day night shift schedule that caused moderate levels of fatigue, as assessed by their performance on an alertness test called psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). During each night shift, participants spent four 30-minute sessions on a high-fidelity driving simulator, which captured data for 87 different metrics related to speed, acceleration, steering, lane position and other factors.
Data analysis indicated that the two factors that best predicted fatigue were variability in steering wheel movements and variability in lane position.
Researchers then showed that data on steering wheel variability can be used to predict variability in lane position early on, making it possible to detect driver drowsiness before the car drifts out of its lane.
‘We wanted to find out whether there may be a better technique for measuring driver drowsiness before fatigue levels are critical and a crash is imminent,’ Van Dongen said in a statement. ‘Our invention provides a solid basis for the development of an early detection system for moderate driver drowsiness. It could also be combined with existing systems to extend their functionality in detecting severe driver drowsiness.’
The solution is said to use inexpensive, easy-to-install parts – including a sensor that measures the position of the steering wheel – and could be included as part of a factory installation or as an aftermarket accessory.
A patent for this method of measuring driver drowsiness has been assigned to WSU under patent number 8676444, with Van Dongen and Forsman named as the inventors. A paper describing the work has been published in Accident Analysis & Prevention.